The Check, Connect, Expect program (CCE) is a tier 2 intervention model within the school-wide positive behaviour support model (SWPBS) of intervention. The SWPBS was established to support students and staff in efforts to decrease problem behaviours by providing interventions intended to increase positive social behaviours within the school. The CCE program is in keeping with the goals of the response to intervention pyramid and aims to target problem behaviours in a proactive and responsive manner in order to reduce the need for further academic or external supports. Over the course of a two year study, 18 school sites with diverse student populations were studied. Results indicated that 84% of students in the program (n=338) did not go on to require tier 3 intervention services. The program was therefore shown to be a cost-effective and successful means of ameliorating student behavioural difficulties while increasing positive daily interactions in the classroom.
One of the goals of tier 2 interventions is to identify students at risk of school failure due to behavioural difficulties as early as possible. To accomplish this, teachers were asked to identify at risk students and to complete a behaviour rating scale. Student scores were then compared with a national normative sample and those meeting the specified criteria were eligible for the program. Paraprofessionals were hired as student coaches and underwent a two day training course on how to implement the program. Program coaches were then supplied access to consulting services with a behavioural specialist, typically a school psychologist, in order to discuss any difficulties that might arise.
In the initial phase of the CCE program students were assigned coaches. The coaches began each school day with a morning check-in. During the check-in the coach helped the student achieve organization of materials, psychological readiness for class, and a review of behavioural goals and associated skills. The coach also provided the student with a daily tracking sheet listing the school-wide expectations, as well as a rubric for the teacher to rate their classroom behaviours. Students met with their coach at the end of the day to review the teacher ratings and to compare the ratings with the predetermined goals. Feedback, praise, and skill review were included in the check-out portion of the day. Students were able to move on to a second phase of the program after a predetermined success rate was achieved. Students who struggled to meet the success rate were given additional time with the coach to learn and practice the desired social skills before moving on to phase two of the program.
In the second phase of the program, a self monitoring component was added. During the first part of phase two the student and the teacher were asked to provide a rating in respect of the expected behaviours. Once both the teacher and student had reached consensus on the behaviours over an extended period of time, the teacher’s ratings were removed and the student was then solely responsible for monitoring their own behaviour with the continued support of their coach. The CCE program not only provides an evidence based, cost effective means of reducing problem behaviours, the program promotes positive behaviour through skill development, relationship building, as well as providing at risk students with daily access to a positive and caring role-model.
Cheney, D., Lynass, L., Flower, A., Waugh, M., Iwaszuk, W., Mielenz, C., & Hawken, L. (2010). The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A Targeted, Tier 2 Intervention in the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Model. Preventing School Failure, 54 (3), 152-158.
*The views expressed by our authors are personal opinions and do not necessarily reflect the views of the CCPA